Cured-in-Place Pipe Lining
Cured-in-Place Pipe lining (CIPP) is a trenchless method used to replace damaged or deteriorated sewer pipe without digging up the existing pipe or disrupting roads, driveways, sidewalks, or landscaping. The process is an effective way to rehabilitate Springfield’s aging sewer system while reducing costs and impacts on citizens and businesses.
Springfield’s public sewer collection system includes more than 470 miles of vitrified clay pipe. As of 2021, the City has rehabilitated more than 120 miles of these through CIPP lining.
How CIPP Lining Works
The CIPP work is completed in three phases covering cleaning and inspection, liner installation and reinstating laterals.
Cleaning and Inspection: Prior to lining, crews clean the existing sewer pipe using high pressure water hoses and then use video cameras to determine current pipe conditions .
Liner Installation: A separate work crew will return, typically several weeks after cleaning, to install the liner. Crews place a flexible liner into the existing sewer. Steam is then forced into the liner, pushing the liner tightly against the existing sewer walls. The heat causes the liner material to cure and harden, creating a new pipe within the existing sewer that is free of cracks and holes. During the curing process, a steam cloud coming from a vent at a manhole may be visible in the air. This will dissipate quickly when the process is complete.
Reinstating Laterals: On the day of installation, once the new liner has been pushed against the existing sewer wall, flow from a home’s sewer lateral will be blocked until the installation process is complete. Once the liner has cured and cooled, crews will use a remote operated cutter and video camera to cut an opening at each house/business connection to restore service.
- Why Is the City relining the Sanitary Sewer line connected to my residence or property?
A video inspection of the sanitary sewer line connected to your residence previously indicated that it needs to be rehabilitated. Reasons for rehabilitating the pipe may include:
- Old age
- Ground water infiltration
The types of existing pipes that we usually reline in this process are vitrified clay pipe (VCP) and concrete pipes (RCP). Sewer relining is a quick and economical process in lieu of replacing pipes by open excavation. This process prevents major disruptions to properties located along the sewer line.
- How will my home/property be affected?
Residents may see activities related to the sewer lining for several weeks leading up to the actual lining. These activities may include:
- Assessment of flow conditions within the main sanitary sewer using remote controlled video cameras.
- Cleaning and inspecting the main sanitary sewer prior and after the sewer lining process is completed.
- Smoke testing to confirm connections between buildings and sewers and to potentially identify defective p-traps/venting within homes and businesses.
On the day of the work, you will be asked to minimize water use until the installation process is complete. During the installation process, the flow of wastewater from your property will be temporarily blocked. Using excessive amounts of water during this time could cause wastewater back-up into the drains or toilets in the lower levels of your property. Once the installation process is complete, you will be advised by an on-site representative that you can resume normal water usage. Residents may also experience loud noise from the equipment, unpleasant odor from the liner and parking restrictions.
- How long is the installation process?
The sections of pipe are selected and scheduled so that the lining installation can be completed the same day that it is initiated. Each property should only be impacted for one day to complete the installation and lateral reinstatement phases.
What does it mean for nearby residents?
The City will make an effort to notify property owners and residents via postcard two weeks in advance of expected CIPP lining work potentially impacting their home. The City’s contractor will then notify residents of the upcoming work via door hanger 24 hours in advance, providing the anticipated date and time of the work, as well as specific instructions for residents. Contact information for a project manager who will be on-site during the work will also be provided.
Residents are advised to follow these guidelines:
AVOID USING WATER
To prevent backups of sewer water into residences or businesses, impacted residences are asked to avoid using water for a period of time during the day. Please avoid washing clothes or dishes, taking showers or baths or flushing toilets. Residents are also asked to turn off any sump pumps connected to the sewer.
AVOID SMELLS ENTERING YOUR HOME
Pour several cups of water down all floor drains and any rarely-used sinks, bathtubs and flush any seldom-used toilets to ensure a water barrier is maintained in your plumbing’s P-traps. If you still smell odors like plastic or glue inside your home during installation, it may be the result of a dry or broken sewer trap in your home’s plumbing.
If you smell an odor in your home, ventilate the area by opening windows and doors and contact the on-site representative at the contact number provided on the door hanger. You can also contact the City of Springfield at 864-1923 to ask questions or report any concerns.
What is Styrene?
Styrene is a clear, colorless liquid that is created for use in a variety of commercial uses, but is also naturally present in small concentrations of many commonly consumed foods and beverages. Styrene is also a chemical used in the creation and installation of CIPP lining and is released into the air in limited concentrations during the steam curing process. When released, the chemical quickly dissipates into the atmosphere.
Styrene has a very intense, distinctive odor and is detectable by the human nose at very low concentrations (less than 1 part per million). The presence of styrene odor does not necessarily indicate a hazard to human health. However, should you begin to sense a strong odor or notice some initial effects of excessive styrene exposure, such as nausea, headache, or eye respiratory irritation, it may indicate an unusual amount of styrene vapor has entered your house. In these cases, we recommend:
- Opening windows to promote ventilation of the structure.
- Contacting the on-site representative at the phone number provided on the door hanger and/or call the city at 864-1923 to report the issue.
- You may want to exit the house for a few hours while the smell dissipates.
On-going Safety Discussion
There are several on-going discussions surrounding safety in relation to styrene emissions released during the CIPP lining process. Various studies have been conducted providing evidence that, for the general population in normal circumstances, measured environmental styrene concentrations from CIPP in the air are at levels too low to cause health effects. However, short-term exposure may cause eye irritation, headache and general discomfort. In most cases, these effects go away quickly upon ventilation or leaving the area of exposure. The presence of a plastic or glue-like smell does not necessarily indicate a hazardous level but we encourage residents who detect this smell to report it to the on-site representative. View a National Association of Sewer Service Companies flyer on styrene safety.
CIPP contract workers are required to follow industry best management practices to protect workers and keep styrene from entering homes during the CIPP installation process. If residents follow instructions and have a functioning p-trap in place, it is unlikely styrene smells and emissions can enter a home or business.
Environmental Services continues to stay informed of developing study findings and updated industry best management practices. City project managers continue to work closely with the CIPP lining contractor to increase outreach measures to impacted properties during the pipe lining process.